Rules of the air[PDF]
- 1 Introduction
- 2 Applicability of the rules of the air
- 3 Minimum height, altitude and flight Level
- 4 Formation flight
- 5 Prohibited areas
- 6 Avoidance of collisions
- 7 Lights to be displayed by aircraft
- 8 Flight plan
- 9 Time
- 10 Air traffic control service
- 11 Weather deterioration below the VMC during a VFR flight
- 12 See also
- 13 Reference
- 14 Author
Applicability of the rules of the air
Responsibility of the pilot in command
Before beginning a flight, the pilot-in-command of an aircraft shall become familiar with all available information appropriate to the intended operation.
- Current weather reports and forecasts
- Fuel requirements and an alternative course of action if the flight cannot be completed as planned.
Minimum height, altitude and flight Level
The cruising levels/altitudes at which a flight is to be conducted shall be in terms of:
- Flight levels, for flights at or above the lowest usable flight level or, where applicable, above the transition altitude;
- Altitudes, for flights below the lowest usable flight level or, where applicable, at or below the transition altitude.
These conditions shall include all the following:
- The formation operates as a single aircraft with regard to navigation and position reporting.
- The separation between aircraft in the flight shall be the responsibility of the flight leader and the pilots-in-command of the other aircraft in the flight
- A distance not exceeding 1 km (0.5 NM) laterally and longitudinally and 30 m (100 ft) vertically from the flight leader shall be maintained by each aircraft
Avoidance of collisions
The exceptions are:
- Power-driven heavier-than-air aircraft shall give way to airships, gliders and balloons
- Airships shall give way to gliders and balloons
- Gliders shall give way to balloons
- Power driven aircraft shall give way to aircraft which are seen to be towing other aircraft or objects.
An overtaking aircraft is an aircraft that approaches another from the rear on a line forming an angle of less than 70 degrees.
An aircraft that is being overtaken has the right-of-way and the overtaking aircraft, whether climbing, descending or in horizontal flight, shall keep out of the way of the other aircraft by altering its heading to the right.
Landing and take-off priorities
When two or more aircraft are approaching an aerodrome for the purpose of landing, aircraft at the higher level shall give way to aircraft at the lower level, but the latter shall not take advantage of this rule to cut in front of another which is in the final stages of an approach to land, or to overtake that aircraft. Nevertheless, power-driven heavier-than-air aircraft shall give way to gliders.
- When two aircraft are approaching head on, or approximately so, each shall stop or where practicable alter its course to the right so as to keep well clear of each other
- When two aircraft are on a converging course, the one which has the other on its right shall give way
- An aircraft which is being overtaken by another aircraft shall have the right-of-way and the overtaking aircraft shall keep well clear of the other aircraft.
An aircraft taxiing on the manoeuvring area shall stop and hold at all runway-holding positions and all lighted stop bars unless otherwise authorized by the aerodrome control tower.
Lights to be displayed by aircraft
- Anti-collision lights intended to attract attention to the aircraft in flight
- Navigation lights intended to indicate the relative path of the aircraft in flight to an observer and other lights shall not be displayed if they are likely to be mistaken for these lights.
- Navigation lights intended to indicate the relative path of the aircraft on the movement area of an aerodrome to an observer and other lights shall not be displayed if they are likely to be mistaken for these lights
Unless stationary or in an adequately illuminated area, all aircraft on the movement area of an aerodrome shall display lights intended to indicate the extremities of their structure.
All aircraft operating on the movement area of an aerodrome shall display lights intended to attract attention to the aircraft and all aircraft on the movement area of an aerodrome of which the engines are running shall display lights which indicate that fact.
Contents of a flight plan
A flight plan shall be submitted prior to operating:
- Any IFR flight
- Any flight along designated routes, when so required by the appropriate ATS authority to facilitate the provision of flight information, alerting and search and rescue services
- Any flight across international borders.
A flight plan shall include the following:
- Aircraft identification
- Flight rules and type of flight
- Number and type(s) of aircraft and wake turbulence category
- Departure aerodrome
- Estimated off-block time
- Cruising speed
- Cruising level
- Route to be followed
- Destination aerodrome and total estimated elapsed time
- Alternate aerodrome(s)
- Fuel endurance
- Total number of persons on board
- Emergency and survival equipment
- Other information
Changes to a flight plan
All changes to a flight plan submitted for an IFR flight, or a VFR flight operated as a controlled flight, shall be reported as soon as practicable to the appropriate air traffic services unit. For other VFR flights,
significant changes to a flight plan shall be reported as soon as practicable to the appropriate air traffic services unit.
Closing a flight plan (real world)
A report of arrival shall be made in person, by radio-telephony or via data link at the earliest possible moment after landing, to the appropriate air traffic services unit at the arrival aerodrome.
When no air traffic services unit exists at the arrival aerodrome, the arrival report, when required, shall be made as soon as practicable after landing and by the quickest means available to the nearest air traffic services unit.
Flight plan and IVAO rules and limitations
A time check shall be obtained prior to operating a controlled flight and at such other times during the flight as may be necessary.
Air traffic control service
Air traffic control clearances
Such clearance shall be requested through the submission of a flight plan to an air traffic control unit.
A controlled flight shall, except when landing at a controlled aerodrome, advise the appropriate ATC unit as soon as it ceases to be subject to air traffic control service.
Adherence to current flight plan
When on an established ATS route, aircraft shall operate along the defined centre line of that route. When on any other route, aircraft shall operate directly between the navigation facilities and/or points defining that route.
- Deviation from track: if the aircraft is off track, action shall be taken forthwith to adjust the heading of the aircraft to regain track as soon as practicable.
- Deviation from ATC assigned Mach number/indicated airspeed: the appropriate air traffic services unit shall be informed immediately.
- Deviation from Mach number/true airspeed: if the sustained Mach number/true airspeed at cruising level varies by plus or minus Mach 0.02 or more, or plus or minus 19 km/h (10 kt) true airspeed or more from the current flight plan, the appropriate air traffic services unit shall be so informed.
- Change in time estimate: if the time estimate for the next applicable reporting point, flight information region boundary or destination aerodrome, whichever comes first, changes in excess of 2 minutes from that previously notified to air traffic services, or such other period of time as is prescribed by the appropriate ATS authority or on the basis of regional air navigation agreements, the flight crew shall notify the appropriate air traffic services unit as soon as possible.
Flight plan changes requests
Requests for current flight plan changes shall include information as indicated hereunder:
- Change of cruising level: aircraft identification; requested new cruising level and cruising Mach number/true airspeed at this level; revised time estimates (when applicable) at subsequent reporting points or flight information region boundaries.
- Change of Mach number/true airspeed: aircraft identification; requested Mach number/true airspeed.
- Change of route:
- Destination unchanged: aircraft identification; flight rules; description of new route of flight including related flight plan data beginning with the position from which the requested change of route is to commence; revised time estimates; any other pertinent information.
- Destination changed: aircraft identification; flight rules; description of revised route of flight to revised destination aerodrome including related flight plan data, beginning with the position from which the requested change of route is to commence; revised time estimates; alternate aerodrome(s); any other pertinent
Termination of control
Weather deterioration below the VMC during a VFR flight
- Request an amended clearance enabling the aircraft to continue in VMC conditions to its destination (other route) or to an alternative aerodrome, or to leave the airspace within which an ATC clearance is required
- If no clearance can be obtained, continue to operate in VMC conditions and notify the appropriate ATC unit of the action being taken either to leave the airspace concerned or to land at the nearest suitable aerodrome
- If operated within a control zone, request authorization to operate as a special VFR flight if the local regulation so permits.
- Request clearance to operate in accordance with instrument flight rules (IFR).
- ICAO documentation Annex 2 - Rules of the Air - 10th Edition July 2005
- VID 150259 - Creation & Wiki integration
- VID 150259 - Update September 2019
DATE OF SUBMISSION
- 08:43, 22 January 2020
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