Private Pilot briefing[PDF]


This briefing is created to help candidates understand the purpose of this exam. This briefing is also applicable for training sessions.


Before applying for this exam, you shall meet the following requirements:
  1. You shall have your Advanced Flight Student rating (FS3) since more than 60 days and
  2. You have at least 50 hours of logged time on IVAN as a Pilot (ATC hours are not taken into account)

Applying for the exam

The theoretical and practical exam can be requested by directly accessing your exam status page. The exam has two parts which shall be successfully validated in this order:

  1. Theoretical exam: complete successfully the PP online test
  2. Practical exam: examiner will check your theoretical knowledge and your proficiency in VFR flight.
Requests for practical exams are only possible for members of active divisions. Members of inactive divisions shall have to change to an active division in order to get higher ratings (R&R

Once your exam has been registered, the examiner will contact you via your e-mail address given on your personal details page. Before requesting for the exam, check that this e-mail address is valid since it is the only way for the examiner to get in touch with you.

We recommend you to do a practical training in your division prior to applying for this exam.

This manual is dedicated only for IVAO Network activities. This document must not be used in real aviation or in other networks

Theoretical Private Pilot Exam

All theoretical exams consist of 20 randomly selected multiple-choice questions (MCQ).
  • Each question includes 3 to 5 proposed answers among which only one is correct.
  • You have a maximum of 45 minutes to fill in the examination paper, and should you exceed this limit, the exam will be automatically recorded as failed (default failed score = 0/100).
  • These MCQ exams are automatically corrected (each question will be marked 0 for a wrong answer or 5 for a right answer).
  • The pass-mark for the exam is 75/100 (corresponding to at least 15 correct answers or a maximum of 5 false answers)
The theoretical questions are mainly extracted from our training documentation and software manual.
All questions are based on ICAO/EU-OPS Rules and Regulations if not stated otherwise in the question.
Note that you can submit your answers as often as you want during the 45 minutes of the exam. Only the last submission will be taken into account. We greatly recommend you submit your examination paper on a regular basis in order to avoid to be marked 0 if you are disconnected or if you exceed the 45 minutes limit.
After your successful theoretical exam, you can apply for the practical part of the exam without delay.
Warning: Our system does not allow the resetting of theoretical exams, as in this case the same exam will appear again. Consequently, the Training department will always refuse to reset unfilled or timed out exams. In order to shorten the time for applying again, members should save their answers on a regular basis so as to avoid the exam being marked 0 if a disconnection or a time out occurs.

Practical Private Pilot Exam

The PP exam is a series of tasks to appreciate your ability of using the pilot IVAO software, your basic VFR theoretical knowledge and your practical VFR flying skills.
Note that these are our minimum standards. Your local division may have set additional requirements that should be published on its web site.

Training material

The training material is available on the IVAO website following these links below:

Other documentation:

(Especially the following chapters: flight controls, flight instruments and aircraft performance)

IVAO software, connection and communication modes

You shall only use one IVAO pilot client approved by the HQ training department for the exam. You shall use IVAO weather enabled. Other weather sources are possible but they shall generate weather as close as possible to the IVAO METAR.
We know that some IVAP or X-IVAP versions present some limitations. We let the examinee select the best possible solution. But we discourage the use of other weather sources to ensure examiner and examinee use the same reference.
You should connect at your departure airfield after the examiner asked you to do so, using the following call sign: EXM#### where #### are the last 4 digits of the exam number or TRN#### where #### are the last 4 digits of the training number.

Your examiner should log on the IVAO network using:

  • His staff call sign and create a private channel on the TeamSpeak community server (
  • An active position on the IVAO network using _EXA_ suffix on position (example XXXX_EXA_APP)

Your examiner will check your ability to correctly use the main functions of the software, mainly:

  • establish a text and/or voice communication with active ATC positions,
  • retrieve and interpret the ATIS of a controller,
  • use the different transponder modes,
  • be able to transmit by text on the current ATC frequency and privately,
  • retrieve a distant station ATIS, METAR and TAF
We strongly recommend voice communication for the exam. We do not recommend a “text-text” or “text-voice” communication method due to the increased level of difficulty and incompatibilities with certain tasks.
Should a member be unable to use voice or the voice/text method due to a medical disability or a poor network connection, please contact the HQ Training Department before requesting the exam in order to establish an individual procedure.

Theoretical knowledge

You will be assessed on your theoretical VFR knowledge as part of the exam.

During the briefing or at some times during the flight, the examiner will ask you a few short questions regarding the following items:
  • Basics of air law: instrument and visual flight rules, weather requirements for VFR flights, airspace classes and structure, types of controlled airspaces, ATC units and positions, transponder codes,
  • Chart reading
  • VFR procedures: VFR charts interpretation and VFR circuit,
  • Navigation: VFR routes, basic use of radio navigation aids, semi-circular rules, transition altitude and transition level,
  • Meteorology: METAR and TAF interpretation,
  • Flight instruments and aircraft knowledge: principles of altimetry, altimeter settings, airspeeds, basic flight instruments, aircraft characteristics.

Practical performance during the exam

General requirements

You should be aware of the following general requirements:
  1. A light (L) single engine piston propeller fixed wing aircraft (such as a Cessna 172, 182, Piper PA28, Mooney M20 or similar) must be used for the flight test (C208, PC12 and helicopters are not allowed).
  2. Make sure you choose an aircraft you know well and are comfortable with.
  3. Basic NAV (navigation) equipment available and fully functional including one VOR receiver and one ADF receiver (or similar) Basic COM (communication) equipment is enough to fulfil exam requirements.
  4. Use of the autopilot and GPS system are permitted on the exam. However, be aware that autopilot might not be able to fulfil required manoeuvres exceeding the autopilot capabilities, resulting in exam failure. You are free to use the autopilot at your own risk.
  5. The flight shall be performed under general aviation operation regulations
  6. Your examiner will advise you of the departure and destination airports prior to the exam (it is examiner’s choice) and you will have to plan the route yourself. As a general rule, you will be requested to fly between two airports at least 20 nm apart under Visual Flight Rules. In case the nearest airport is too far from the departing field, a local flight may be prescribed.
  7. You will be expected to find the necessary VFR charts yourself (check your country’s AIS for online charts availability). If you have difficulties doing so, contact your examiner prior to the exam. In all cases, you may have to coordinate with him so as to determinate which charts will be needed.
  8. VMC conditions must exist for the flight to be performed. If necessary, the examiner will postpone or relocate the exam or even can accept simulated clear weather conditions.
  9. When starting the exam, you will have to decide if the current weather is acceptable for the intended VFR flight.
  10. FS daytime is accepted.
  11. You should connect at your departure airfield after the examiner asked you to do so, using the following call sign: EXM#### where #### are the last 4 digits of the exam number or TRN#### where #### are the last 4 digits of the training number. Your radiotelephony call sign will be “Exam ####” for exam session or "Training ####" for training session. Your exam or training number can be found on the exam status page.
  12. The examiner may either be connected as an observer and “simulate” an active ATC position or may connect as an active ATC or collaborate with another ATC in charge of the airspace where the exam takes place. In all cases, comply with all instructions normally.
  13. Unless you are disconnected from the network, we require you submit your flight plan only once on examiner's request while connected and starting the test flight. You should not change any item and/or resubmit your flight plan thereafter.

VFR flight

The test flight will mainly assess the following:
  1. Connection at the departing airport,
  2. VFR flight plan; unless you are disconnected during the exam, we request that you send your flight plan only once at the beginning of the flight and on request of the examiner,
  3. Ground movements from gate/parking area to the assigned runway,
  4. Take off technique,
  5. VFR departure,
  6. En-route VFR navigation (accuracy of navigation based on visual references and radio navigation aids, if any); during the flight, your examiner may ask you to make some exercises (turns to specified headings, climbs/descents to assigned altitude, crossing a defined fix at a specified altitude, flying direct to a VOR and a NDB, making a 360°),
  7. VFR arrival (entry points, pattern integration),
  8. Traffic patterns,
  9. Touch and go or go around followed by a 2nd pattern,
  10. Full stop landing and taxi to apron/gate,
  11. Phraseology (use of correct phraseology, prompt and accurate read back, minimum proficiency in spoken English)
Certain minimum requirements are expected for some tasks:
  • IVAO software knowledge
  • Basic VFR theoretical knowledge
  • Connecting to the network
  • VFR Pattern execution at aerodrome
  • Radio communication and basic VFR English proficiencies

Evaluation and marking method

The examiner will score separately all required tasks (including both theoretical questions and practical exercises) on a dedicated marking sheet.

Each score will reflect the exactness and range of your knowledge (for theoretical data) and your ability to accurately execute the exercises (and your performance in doing so).

The maximum score is 100 points. The pass mark is 75/100. In all cases, your examiner will give you the detailed results during the debriefing, so as you can identify your errors and correct them in case the exam is failed.

Failure to perform these tasks at the specified standard will result in the exam being marked as fail, regardless of your overall performance and the final exam mark shall be 49/100 or less down to 0/100 depending on examiner’s assessment.
Some special situations may result in an automatic exam failure (maximum score = 51/100):
  • Performing the exam with an inappropriate aircraft class or type
  • Radio Communication proficiency failure
  • English Communication proficiency failure
  • Insufficient theoretical knowledge
  • Poor theoretical knowledge
  • No charts
  • Connection on the runway
  • Entering the runway without adequate clearance
  • Taking off without clearance
  • Landing without clearance
  • Landing outside the runway
  • Inability to execute VFR patterns
  • 2 tasks marked “0”
  • Use of pause mode in the simulator
  • Flying inside a prohibited area (P) or in a class A airspace
  • Descend below VFR minimum altitude
  • Crash due to terrain collision
  • Crash due to loss of control
  • Crash due to aircraft overstress
NOTE: The score for these exams will be 49/100 or less depending on the total result of the exam. This does not mean that the exam is not continued until finished.
An exam is considered as failed and the practical part will stop immediately or will not be performed if:
  • Examinee has extremely poor theoretical knowledge (score shall be at or below 10/100)
  • Examinee violates against IVAO Rules and Regulations (score shall be 1/100 or 0/100 depending of examiner)
  • Examinee does not turn up for the exam and a valid reason is not given within 48 hours. This will cause the exam to be considered as failed (score shall be 1/100 or 0/100 depending of examiner)
  • In case you decide to stop the exam at any time after it has begun (score shall be 1/100 or 0/100 depending of examiner)
  • In case of any provable cheating during a practical exam, regardless if during the theoretical or the practical part, the result will be 0/100 and a blocking of 6 months for exams will be appointed to the examinee.
If the examinee fails to arrive for the exam at the time organised, the examiner should wait for 15 minutes. After that period, the examiner can log off the network. The examinee then has 48 hours to provide a valid reason for the failure to attend by e-mail. If no e-mail is received in time the exam will be marked as failed.
Should a PC crash occur which is out of the applicant’s control, the exam will have to start again or will be delayed to take place on another day, the decision being up to the examiner.

Validation of the exam

After evaluation, your examiner will send his evaluation to the training director who will assign a validator.

The validator will verify the marking based on the comments and marking sheet of the examiner.

If your exam is validated as a success, your rating will be updated at 1200z the following day.
The validation process needs a validation delay estimated from one day minimum to an average maximum of one week.

See also

  • None


  • None


  • VID 150259 - Creation - Wiki integration
  • VID 200696 - Update May 2019
  • VID 150259 - Update September 2019


  • 12:27, 1 December 2019


  • This documentation is copyrighted as part of the intellectual property of the International Virtual Aviation Organisation.


  • The content of this documentation is intended for aviation simulation only and must not be used for real aviation operations.