- 1 Introduction
- 2 Landing distance available
- 3 Calculation of landing distance
- 4 See also
- 5 Reference
- 6 Author
The determination of landing distance required for aircraft to land is calculated by taking into account the effect of various influencing factors, including runway construction, surface conditions and the use of aircraft devices which are available to assist deceleration.
Landing distance available
Safety factor distance may vary according to the aircraft type, the runway conditions (dry, wet or contaminated), runway construction (slope, altitude).
Calculation of landing distance
Flight Conditions before landing
- 50 ft above runway threshold
- Aircraft configured for landing (landing gear, flaps and slats, etc.)
- Stabilized approach speed and configuration
- Appropriate descent rate
- Appropriate power setting
- Wings level.
On touch-down, the pilot shall verify the following parameters:
- Brakes shall be applied (automatic or manual)
- Power shall be reduced
- Additional devices shall be deployed like thrust reversers, lift dump, ground spoilers
- Directional control shall be maintained.
Factors which affect the landing distance
- The aircraft landing mass and flaps configuration
- The surface wind and temperature
- The runway elevation and slope
- The runway surface conditions (dry, wet or contaminated)
- The condition of aircraft braking systems
- Aircraft landing mass
- Flaps configuration
- Runway elevation
- Automatic braking system when available
When the pilot has calculated his landing distance, he shall add a safety factor to find the required landing distance.
Type of aircraft safety factor
- For turbo-jet powered aeroplanes, within 60 % of the landing distance available
- For turbo-propeller powered aeroplanes, within 70 % of the landing distance available
Wet runway factor
The pilot shall ensure that when the runway at the estimated time of arrival may be wet, the landing distance available is at least 115 % of the required landing distance.
Other contaminated runway factor
The pilot shall ensure that when the runway at the estimated time of arrival may be contaminated with standing water or slush-contaminated, the landing distance available is at least 200 % of the required landing distance.
The pilot shall ensure that when the runway at the estimated time of arrival may be contaminated with compact snow, the landing distance available is at least 160 % of the required landing distance.
The pilot shall ensure that when the runway at the estimated time of arrival may be contaminated with ice, the landing distance available is at least 350 % of the required landing distance.
Runway construction influence
The pilot shall add +10% to the current required distance (factor = 1.1) for each 1% downhill slope when the downhill slope is above 2%.
Example: Runway downhill = 3%. New required distance = 1.3 x Old required distance
The pilot shall add 5% to the current required distance (factor = 1.05) for each +1000ft airfield elevation.
Example: Airfield elevation is 3000ft. Factor = 5% =x 3 = 15%. New required distance = 1.15 x Old required distance
Aircraft parameter on runway threshold influence
The pilot shall add +20% to the current required distance (factor = 1.2) for each +10% increasing of approach speed.
The pilot shall add 305m or 1000ft to the current required distance for each +50ft crossing height at threshold above +50ft.
- VID 150259 - Creation
- VID 256272 - Wiki integration
DATE OF SUBMISSION
- 02:19, 14 May 2021
- This documentation is copyrighted as part of the intellectual property of the International Virtual Aviation Organisation.
- The content of this documentation is intended for aviation simulation only and must not be used for real aviation operations.