IFR non precision approach and minima[PDF]
Non-precision approaches are often conducted with less use of automated systems than precision approaches. However, on many modern aircraft, automatic systems may be left engaged until reaching the MDA/H.
- take-off, expressed in terms of runway visual range and/or visibility and, if necessary, cloud conditions
- landing in 2D instrument approach operations, expressed in terms of visibility and/or runway visual range, minimum descent altitude/height (MDA/H) and, if necessary, cloud conditions
- landing in 3D instrument approach operations, expressed in terms of visibility and/or runway visual range and decision altitude/height (DA/H) as appropriate to the type and/or category of the operation.
DA = A specified altitude or height in a 3D instrument approach operation at which a missed approach must be initiated if the required visual reference to continue the approach has not been established.
MDA = A specified altitude or height in a 2D instrument approach operation or circling approach operation below which descent must not be made without the required visual reference.
- a two-dimensional (2D) instrument approach operation, using lateral navigation guidance only;
- a three-dimensional (3D) instrument approach operation, using both lateral and vertical navigation guidance.
- Type A: a minimum descent height or decision height at or above 75 m (250 ft); and
- Type B: a decision height below 75 m (250 ft).
Lateral and vertical navigation guidance refers to the guidance provided either by:
- a ground-based radio navigation aid (NDB, LLZ, VOR, ILS)
- a computer-generated navigation data from ground-based, space-based, self-contained navigation aids or a combination of these.
- Localizer only or Localizer/DME
- VOR or VOR/DME
- NDB or NDB/DME
- RNAV without vertical guidance or with vertical guidance with precision below the requirements established for precision approach.
Decision making to continue
Minimum decision height and Decision altitude
- The instrument phase ends at the published MDA/H or DA/H unless a missed approach is initiated.
- The continued approach to landing from MDA/H or DA/H will be conducted using visual references.
MDA is referenced to mean sea level and MDH is referenced to the aerodrome elevation or to the threshold elevation if that is more than 2 m (7 ft) below the aerodrome elevation.
A MDH for a circling approach is referenced to the aerodrome elevation.
The required visual reference means that section of the visual aids or of the approach area which should have been in view for sufficient time for the pilot to have made an assessment of the aircraft position and rate of change of position, in relation to the desired flight path. In the case of a circling approach the required visual reference is the runway environment.
The MDA/H may not be lower than the system minimum for the type of approach.
The operator must specify an addition to the MDA/H, which depends on the performance of the aircraft, to ensure that if a missed approach is commenced at this altitude the aircraft will not descend below the MDA/H.
- IFR arrival and approach procedure, Category of aircraft for approach procedures, IFR precision approach and minima
- ICAO documentation Annex 6 - Operation of Aircraft - Part I - International Commercial Air Transport - Aeroplanes - 10th Edition July 2016
- VID 150259 - Creation
- VID 531824 - Wiki Integration
DATE OF SUBMISSION
- 20:25, 14 November 2019
- This documentation is copyrighted as part of the intellectual property of the International Virtual Aviation Organisation.
- The content of this documentation is intended for aviation simulation only and must not be used for real aviation operations.