IFR flight plan equipment[PDF]

(Redirected from IFR flight plan equipments)

Introduction

When filing a flightplan, aircraft operators are required to submit the list of equipment aboard their aircraft for declaring:
  • Navigation capabilities dedicated to ATC management.
  • Regulatory equipment depending on flight type, flight rules.
  • Type of advanced surveillance systems for airport and airspace infrastructures management.


In addition to this equipment which is instrument-related, operators are required to report about the surveillance equipment aboard their aircraft, otherwise called transponders.

In this particular document, the following subjects will be dealt with:

  • Common general aviation equipment including descriptions and goals.
  • Required equipment for IFR flights as per regulations.
  • Methodology to establish present equipment in an aircraft based on several examples of IFR aircraft, more or less sophisticated.


IFR flight equipment


Conventional Radio and Navigaton

The table below groups the radio and navigation equipment used for IFR flights.

Letter Description
C LOng RAnge Navigation (LORAN) C is a terrestrial radio navigation system using low frequency

radio transmitters to determine the location and speed of the receiver (i.e the aircraft in aviation context). This equipment is not compatible with our current flight simulators and now obsolete.

D Distance Measuring Equipment (DME) is a transponder-based radio navigation technology that

measures distance between the equipment on ground and an aircraft by timing the propagation delay of VHF or UHF radio signals.

F Automatic Direction Finder (ADF) is a radio-navigation instrument that automatically and

continuously displays the relative bearing from the aircraft to a suitable radio station.

H High Frequency (HF) RadioTelephone (RTF). (Mainly used during oceanic flight)
I An Inertial Navigation System (INS) or Inertial Reference System (IRS) or Inertial Reference Unit

(IRU) is a navigation aid that uses a computer, motion sensors (accelerometers) and rotation sensors (gyroscopes) to continuously calculate the position, orientation, and velocity of a plane.

K Microwave Landing System (MLS) is an aviation approach and landing system providing most

accurate and reliable information for safe landings. This system overcomes the possible limitations of the ILS. This equipment is not compatible with our current flight simulators.

L Instrument Landing System (ILS) is a ground-based instrument approach system that provides

precision guidance to an aircraft approaching and landing on a runway.

O VHF Omni directional Range (VOR) is a type of radio navigation system for aircraft. The system

relies on ground based transmitters which emit signals to a VOR receiver inside the aircraft. The navigation signal allows the aircraft receiving equipment to determine a magnetic bearing from the station to the aircraft.

S It shall be specified if standard COM/NAV/approach aid equipment for the route to be flown is

carried and serviceable. If the letter S is used, standard equipment is considered to be VHF RTF, VOR and ILS unless another combination is prescribed by the appropriate ATS authority.

T Tactical Air Navigation (TACAN) is a navigation system in UHF, giving the air crew continuous

information as to its range and bearing from a beacon. It is similar to VOR but in UHF instead of VHF. TACAN is primarily used by military aircraft.

U Ultra High Frequency (UHF) Radio Telephone (RTF). Radio equipment onboard the aircraft used

by military aircraft. This equipment is not compatible with our current flight simulators.

V Very High Frequency (VHF) Radio Telephone (RTF). Radio equipment onboard the aircraft.
W Reduced Vertical Separation Minima (RVSM) of 300m (1000ft) separation between aircraft

provides six additional cruising levels between FL 290 and FL 410.

X Minimum Navigation Performance Specification (MNPS): a set of standards which require aircraft to

have a minimum navigation performance capability in order to operate in MNPS designated airspace. The airspace is vertically defined between FL285 and FL410 and horizontally includes the following OCCs: REYKJAVIK, SHANWICK, GANDER, SANTA MARIA and part of NEW YORK.

Y Very High Frequency (VHF) with 8.33 kHz spacing channel: it was decided in 1994 to introduce a

further channel split from 25 kHz to 8.33 kHz.

Rule: Standard (S) equipment groups following equipment: VOR(O) + ILS(L) + VHF(V). S = LOV
S equipment will replace LOV in the flight plan declaration; you may not declare LOV in combination with S. S equipment should be inserted as first letter in the flight plan equipment section.


Area Navigaton Capability (RNAV)

The table below groups the appropriate possibilities for area navigation capability.

Letter Description
A Ground-Based Augmentation System (GBAS) is a safety-critical system that augments the GPS

Standard Positioning Service (SPS) and provides enhanced levels of service. It supports all phases of approach, landing, departure, and surface operations within its area of coverage. (Today, flight simulators are not compatible with this capability)

B Localizer Performance with Vertical guidance (LPV). APproach with Vertical guidance (APV-SBAS).

Space/Satellite Based Augmentation System (SBAS). The purpose of LPV is to fly ILS look-alike procedures published as RNAV GNSS with LPV minima, by using SBAS. (Today, flight simulators are not compatible with this capability)

G Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS). The term GNSS encompasses all the satellite

navigation systems such as GPS, GLONASS, GALILEO

R R indicates the Performance Based Navigation (PBN) levels that can be met. It is used by ATC for

clearance and routing purposes. The insertion of R in the field 10a requires PBN/ to be present in field 18. The PBN sub-field contains the RNAV and/or RNP certifications and operational approvals applicable for the flight.

Rule: PBN (R) demands additional information to be provided in field 18 with descriptor PBN/
Refer to the following documentation for more information about PBN: RNAV systems.

Additonal Communicaton Systems

Aircraft Communications Addressing Reporting System (ACARS)

The table below groups the corresponding capability related to ACARS operations:

Letter Description
E1 Flight Management Computer (FMC) WayPoint Reporting (WPR) Aircraft Communications

Addressing Reporting System (ACARS). A number of airlines routinely receive ACARS position reports from their aircraft via satellite as part of their Airline Operational Control (AOC) flight monitoring. These position reports can be forwarded to an ATS provider and be used to replace HF voice position reports. This method of delivery for aircraft position reports is known as FMC WPR.

E2 Data link (D)-Flight Information Services (FIS) Aircraft Communications Addressing Reporting

System (ACARS). The flight information services provided can be weather reports and operational data.

E3 Pre-Departure Clearance (PDC) Aircraft Communications Addressing Reporting System (ACARS).

Pre-departure clearance from ATC can be received in the cockpit via the ACARS.

ACARS is a digital datalink system for transmission of short, relatively simple messages between aircraft and ground stations via radio or satellite.

Controller-Pilot DataLink Communications (CPDLC)

The table below groups the corresponding capability related to CPDLC operations:

Letter Description
J1 Controller Pilot Data Link Communications (CPDLC) Aeronautical Telecommunication Network

(ATN) VHF DigitaL Mode 2 (VDL2). The ICAO VDL Mode 2 is the VDL version most commonly used and in this version uses ground based communication network (ATN).

J2 Controller Pilot Data Link Communications (CPDLC Future Air Navigation Services (FANS) 1/A

High Frequency Data Link (HFDL). FANS 1/A provides controller-pilot data link communications (CPDLC) and includes air traffic control clearances, pilot requests and position reporting. FANS 1/A typically operates over satellite communications (SATCOM) and is mostly used in Oceanic airspace. FANS 1/A over HFDL provides air traffic control (ATC) communication coverage in the Polar region

J3 Controller Pilot Data Link Communications (CPDLC Future Air Navigation Services (FANS) 1/A

VHF Data Link (VDL) Mode A. FANS 1/A provides controller-pilot data link communications (CPDLC) and includes air traffic control clearances, pilot requests and position reporting. FANS 1/A typically operates over satellite communications (SATCOM) and is mostly used in Oceanic airspace. VDL Mode A is also known as POA (Plain Old ACARS).

J4 Controller Pilot Data Link Communications (CPDLC Future Air Navigation Services (FANS) 1/A

VHF Data Link (VDL) Mode 2. FANS 1/A provides controller-pilot data link communications (CPDLC) and include air traffic control clearances, pilot requests and position reporting. FANS 1/A typically operates over satellite communications (SATCOM) and is mostly used in Oceanic airspace.

J5 Controller Pilot Data Link Communications (CPDLC Future Air Navigation Services (FANS) 1/A.

FANS 1/A provides controller-pilot data link communications (CPDLC) and includes air traffic control clearances, pilot requests and position reporting. FANS 1/A typically operates over satellite communications and is mostly used in Oceanic airspace via the INMARSAT satellite network.

J6 Controller Pilot Data Link Communications (CPDLC Future Air Navigation Services (FANS) 1/A.

FANS 1/A provides controller-pilot data link communications (CPDLC) and includes air traffic control clearances, pilot requests and position reporting. FANS 1/A typically operates over satellite communications and is mostly used in Oceanic airspace. This indicator specifies that the data is transiting via the MTSAT satellite network

J7 Controller Pilot Data Link Communications (CPDLC Future Air Navigation Services (FANS) 1/A.

FANS 1/A provides controller-pilot data link communications (CPDLC) and includes air traffic control clearances, pilot requests and position reporting. FANS 1/A typically operates over satellite communications and is mostly used in Oceanic airspace. This indicator specifies that the data is transiting via the IRIDIUM satellite network. It allows worldwide voice and data communications including the poles, oceans and airways.

CPDLC system is designed to send more elaborate messages than ACARS in order to enhance communications in particular in remote airspaces.
The ICAO VDL Mode 2 is the VDL version most commonly used. It was chosen for the Eurocontrol Link 2000+ program and is specified as the primary link in the EU Single European Sky rule adopted in January 2009 requiring all new aircraft flying in Europe after January 1, 2014 to be equipped with CPDLC.

SATellite COMmunication (SATCOM)

The table below groups the appropriate identifiers corresponding to SATCOM operations:

Letter Description
M1 Air Traffic Control (ATC) RadioTelephone (RTF) SATellite COMmunications (SATCOM) with data

transiting via the INMARSAT satellite network.

M2 Air Traffic Control (ATC) RadioTelephone (RTF) SATellite COMmunications (SATCOM) with data

transiting via the MTSAT satellite network.

M3 Air Traffic Control (ATC) RadioTelephone (RTF) SATellite COMmunications (SATCOM) with data

transiting via the IRIDIUM satellite network.

Satellite communications are meant to enhance and improve communication quality over remote airspaces. The way to communicate (one after another, phraseology, readbacks…) shall be observed to prevent any misunderstanding from one of the listeners. (Not applicable for IVAO)

CPDLC

The table below groups the appropriate identifiers corresponding to CPDLC operations and application of performance-based communication, which prescribes RCP to an air traffic service in a specific area:

Letter Description
P1 Controller Pilot Data Link Communications (CPDLC) Required Communication Performance (RCP) 400
P2 Controller Pilot Data Link Communications (CPDLC) Required Communication Performance (RCP) 240
P3 SATellitte VOICE (SATVOICE) 400

Other capabilities

Letter Description
Z Every equipment not recognized by a proper identifier must be added by a remark in field 18 under

designator NAV/ or COM/ or DAT/

The following remarks are common:

  • NAV/SBAS ACAS GBAS: Indicate that the aircraft is equipped with SBAS/ACAS/GBAS receiver.
  • NAV/TCAS: Indicate that the aircraft is equipped with TCAS

Transponder types


Main types

The table below groups different transponder types commonly found in IFR-dedicated aircraft.

Letter Description
E Transponder Mode S, with aircraft identification, pressure altitude and ADS-B
H Transponder Mode S, with aircraft identification, pressure altitude and enhanced surveillance
I Transponder Mode S, with aircraft identification but no pressure altitude
L Transponder Mode S, with aircraft identification, pressure altitude, enhanced surveillance and ADS-B
P Transponder Mode S, including pressure-altitude, but no aircraft identification.
S Transponder Mode S, including both pressure-altitude and aircraft identification.
X Transponder Mode S, with neither pressure-altitude nor aircraft identification.
All IFR aircraft shall be equipped with at least a mode S transponder.
Mode S: Whilst traditional Secondary Surveillance Radar (SSR) stations interrogate all aircraft within their range, Mode S (Select) establishes selective and addressed interrogations with aircraft within its coverage. Such selective interrogation improves the quality and integrity of the detection, identification and altitude reporting.

ADS-B/ADS-C Options

The table below groups all options associated with ADS-B and ADS-C.
Letter Description
B1 ADS-B with dedicated out capability
B2 ADS-B with dedicated in and out capability
D1 ADS-C with FANS 1/A capabilities
G1 ADS-C with ATN capabilities
U1 ADS-B out capability using UAT
U2 ADS-B in and out capability using UAT
V1 ADS-B out capability using VDL Mode 4
V2 ADS-B in and out capability using VDL Mode 4
ADS-B: Automatic Dependent Surveillance – Broadcast is a means for an aircraft to send its position and various flight parameters periodically to anyone equipped with a receiver. Receptors are Air Traffic Control stations and other aircraft with “in” capability. Broadcast frequency is usually once per second during approach phase, and up to once per ten seconds when en-route.
ADS-C: Automatic Dependent Surveillance – Contract is a private ADS-B since aircraft needs to be logged on the receiving station to transmit information. Usually this system relies on satellites which are very expensive, resulting in less periodical update, about once per 10 minutes; and concerns oceanic area.

IVAO pilot interface Sofware Default Equipment

By default, the IVAO Pilot Interface provides equipment that may be included automatically in your flight plan, independently of your cockpit instruments.

IVAO pilot interface provides:
  • VHF receiver (2 channel) = letter V in the flight plan equipment section
  • VHF receiver possesses 8.33kHz frequency spacing = letter Y in the flight plan equipment section
  • ACARS interface and METAR/ATIS request = letter E2 in the flight plan equipment section
  • Text interface = basic data link (CPDLC system) VHF DigitaL Mode 2 (VDL2) = letter J1 in the flight plan equipment section
  • TCAS = letter Z in the flight plan equipment section + NAV/TCAS in remark section
  • Mode S transponder = letter /S in the flight plan transponder section


If pilot performs an ocean track over Atlantic and Pacific:

  • Text interface = Text position report for overseas tracks = Letter E1 in the flight plan equipment section
  • Text interface = basic CPDLC system include air traffic control clearances, pilot requests and position reporting = letter J4 or J5 or J6 or J7 in the flight plan equipment section (depending of the satellite network chosen)


If pilot performs a polar track:

  • Text interface = basic CPDLC system include air traffic control clearances, pilot requests and position reporting, High Frequency Data Link = letter J2


If pilot accepts to use advanced features that IVAO offers, you can include:

  • Text interface = Pre Departure Clearance ACARS = letter E3 in the flight plan equipment section.
Caution: Please remain logical when selecting equipment! Adding CPDLC or ACARS support to a general aviation aircraft should make no sense. Refer to the methodology part for more information.

IFR-Flight Regulatory Equipment

Radio and Navigaton

VOR (O)

Any IFR aircraft shall be equipped with one VOR instrument and pilot must insert equipment O in his flight plan.

Radio requirement (V)

Except when operating in uncontrolled airspace which is highly remote when operating under IFR clearance, aircraft are required to carry a serviceable VHF radio. Thanks to IVAO pilot interface, you must always include VHF radio aboard your aircraft as equipment letter V

8.33kHz Frequency Spacing (Y)

For aircraft operating under instrument flight rules, the 8.33 kHz frequency spacing equipment is currently required above FL195, and when transiting through any class A, class B and class C airspace.
As the airspaces are crowded with aircraft, the need to switch some airspace using 8.33 kHz frequency spacing is increasing; this equipment becomes more and more mandatory!
Thanks to the IVAO pilot interface interface, you are always equipped with 8.33 kHz VHF frequency spacing radio and you must always include equipment Y in your flight plan.

Reduced Vertical Separation Minima (W)

All aircraft operating between FL285 and FL415 shall be RVSM since almost all airspaces are RVSM. You must therefore include equipment letter W.

Minimum Navigation Performance Specification (X)

Whenever operating between FL285 and FL415 over North Atlantic and entering specified control areas, a MNPS certificate is required for all flights. You must then include letter X

Area Navigation (RNAV)

Some countries require basic RNAV capabilities at flight levels that may be used by basic IFR aircraft that do not use very sophisticated instruments such as airliners. This basic RNAV capability requires to use Performance Based Navigation (PBN) = letter R

In function of aircraft equipment, you shall use the following additional equipment:

  • Basic GPS embarked = letter G
  • Modern flight management computer = letter GI
  • Vintage inertial system = letter I

Vintage inertial systems can be found on A300, B707, B741 or Concorde. For your information, the first version of the Airbus A320 was not including a GNSS receiver and primary means of navigation was based on inertial navigation (IRS).

Refer to the following documentation for more information about PBN: RNAV systems.

There is not a common flight level. Each country has defined its own limiting flight level. The following table will provide regulations for several countries in Europe:


Country PBN is required above Country PBN is required above
Austria FL95 Italy FL95
Belgium FL95 Netherlands FL95
France FL115 Spain FL150
Germany FL95 Switzerland FL100
Ireland FL95 UK GND
In IVAO, if you do not know the PBN regulation applicable to IFR flights, you can consider that above FL95, the PBN is required.

The RNAV capability to be inserted shall take the PBN codes presented in the table below:

Area  RNAV category All sensors GNSS DME/DME VOR/DME DME/DME/IRU LORAN
Oceanic RNAV 10 A1 - - - - -
RNP 4 L1 - - - -
En-route RNAV 5 B1 B2 B3 B4 B5 B6
RNAV 2 C1 C2 C3 - C4 -
RNAV 1 D1 D2 D3 - D4 -
Terminal RNAV D1 D2 D3 - D4 -
RNP 1 O1 O2 O3 - O4 -
Final RNP APCH S1 - - - - -
RNP APCH with BARO VNAV S2 - - - - -
RNP AR APCH with RF T1 - - - - -
RNP AR APCH without RF T2 - - - - -


As aircraft requires PBN regulation, we will give you some examples of possibilities in function of your equipment installed:

Equipment En-route Terminal Final
Basic GPS or basic FMC en-route only B2 - -
Basic GPS with STAR included B2C2 D2 -
Vintage Inertial system (B707, concorde...) en-route only B5 - -
Vintage Inertial system (B707, concorde...) with STAR included B5C4 D4 -
Modern FMC en-route only B1C1 - -
Modern FMC with STAR included B1C1 D1O1 -
Modern FMC with STAR and LNAV Approach B1C1 D1O1 S1
Modern FMC with STAR and LNAV+VNAV Approach B1C1 D1O1 S2


If the aircraft performs a flight with oceanic track:

Equipment Oceanic
Basic GPS or basic FMC on oceanic track A1
Vintage Inertial system (B707, Concorde...) on oceanic track A1
Modern FMC on oceanic track A1L1


Example: PBN/B1C1D1O1S1; PBN/B2C2D2; PBN/B5C4D4

Controller-Pilot DataLink Communicatons (CPDLC)

Some countries (like in Europe) require all aircraft flying above FL245 to be operating with CPDLC based on ATN using VDL Mode 2. Your flightplan must state when appropriate the equipment letter J1

Transponder requirement (/S)

Thanks to the IVAO pilot interface interface, you are always equipped with a type S transponder.Pilots shall fill the letter /S in transponder section of the flight plan or equivalent. Pilots may also file any higher mode S transponder like /LB1 or /H for example to simulate a real flight plan.
Aircraft with lower standards (transponder A or C) shall not plan their flight as IFR.

See also

Reference

  • None

Author

  • VID 200696 - Creation
  • VID 150259 - Update
  • VID 531824 - Wiki Integration

DATE OF SUBMISSION

  • 20:22, 18 April 2019

COPYRIGHT

  • This documentation is copyrighted as part of the intellectual property of the International Virtual Aviation Organisation.

DISCLAIMER

  • The content of this documentation is intended for aviation simulation only and must not be used for real aviation operations.