Aerodrome Phraseology[PDF]

Introduction

This article is a phraseology generic database. Please consult following articles for real application of this database:


Initial IFR clearance request

Every flight that is intended to be operated under Instrument Flight Rules has to receive an initial IFR clearance. When receiving your initial clearance, your flight plan is approved and you can perform your flight.
Clearances shall contain the following in the order listed:
  • aircraft identification.
  • clearance limit.
  • designator of the assigned SID, if applicable.
  • cleared level(s)
  • allocated SSR code (squawk/transponder code)
  • any other necessary instructions or information not contained in the SID description, (non-standard departure route, instructions relating to change of frequency ...)
  • CLEARED TO (destination airfield) VIA (departure SID identifier) DEPARTURE, [RUNWAY (departure runway)], FLIGHT PLANNED ROUTE, CLIMB (initial level), SQUAWK (squawk number).
  • CLEARED TO (destination airfield), FLIGHT PLANNED ROUTE, CLIMB (intial level), AFTER DEPATURE (description of the clearance to follow - omnidirectionnal clearance or non-standard clearance), SQUAWK (squawk number).

Example full clearance: Scandinavian 845, CLEARED TO Stockholm-Arlanda VIA ROC1H departure, RUNWAY 14, CLIMB 4000 feet, SQUAWK 3456

Example of a vectored departure: Scandinavian 509, CLEARED to Stockholm Arlanda, CLIMB altitude 4000 feet, SQUAWK 3737, AFTER DEPARTURE maintain runway track, when passing 3000ft turn left direct Nicky VOR.

Starting procedures

Pilot requests permission to start:
  • [aircraft location] REQUEST START UP
  • [aircraft location] REQUEST START UP, INFORMATION (ATIS identification)
Reply given by ATC:
  • START UP APPROVED
  • START UP AT (time)
  • EXPECT START UP AT (time)
  • START UP AT OWN DISCRETION
  • EXPECT DEPARTURE (time) START UP AT OWN DISCRETION
Caution: Starting procedures in some countries do not signify that the pilot is obliged to start the engines. When receiving this instruction, it is the permission to start the complex aircraft starting procedure that ends with the engine running. Usually, the pilot in command shall initiate the start of main engines in coordination with ground personnel around the aircraft.

Pushback Procedures

Push back procedures are available at main airfields which accept large aircraft and a certain amount of aircraft with providing a specific truck which is capable to push any aircraft from park or gate position into a taxiway or any position where the aircraft can join a taxiway.

Note: When local procedures so prescribe, authorization for pushback should be obtained from the control tower. Be careful, at some airfields there is no pushback procedure and the pilot is obliged to park his aircraft in a specific position on the airfield to prevent this situation.
Pilot requests a pushback from its position:
  • [aircraft location] REQUEST PUSHBACK
ATC reply:
  • PUSHBACK APPROVED
  • STAND BY
  • PUSHBACK AT OWN DISCRETION
  • EXPECT (number) MINUTES DELAY DUE (reason).

Towing procedure

Pilot requests towing procedure:
  • REQUEST TOWING FROM (Aircraft location) TO (location)
ATC reply:
  • TOW APPROVED VIA (specific routing to be followed)
  • HOLD POSITION
  • STAND BY

Requesting departure information

Pilot requests current UTC time:
  • REQUEST TIME CHECK
ATC reply:
  • TIME (time)
Pilot requests departure information when no ATIS broadcast is available or information is considered as outdated:
  • REQUEST DEPARTURE INFORMATION
ATC reply:
  • RUNWAY (number), WIND (direction and speed) (units) QNH (or QFE) (number) [(units)] TEMPERATURE [MINUS] (number), [VISIBILITY (distance) (units) (or RUNWAY VISUAL RANGE (or RVR) (distance) (units))] [TIME (time)]

Taxi procedures

Pilot requests taxi to the assigned runway given in the clearance:
  • [aircraft type] [wake turbulence category if “heavy”] [aircraft location] REQUEST TAXI [intentions]
Pilot requests taxi to the active runway and he has not received any clearance:
  • [aircraft type] [wake turbulence category if “heavy”] [aircraft location] (flight rules) TO (aerodrome of destination) REQUEST TAXI [intentions]
ATC reply or ATC instruction without any request to a departing aircraft:
  • TAXI TO HOLDING POINT [number] [RUNWAY (number)] [HOLD SHORT OF RUNWAY (number) (or CROSS RUNWAY (number))] [TIME (time)]
  • TAXI TO HOLDING POINT [number] [RUNWAY (number)] VIA (specific route to be followed) [HOLD SHORT OF RUNWAY (number) (or CROSS RUNWAY (number))] [TIME (time)]
Pilot requests detailed taxi instructions:
  • [aircraft type] [wake turbulence category if “heavy”] REQUEST DETAILED TAXI INSTRUCTIONS
ATC instruction to a departing aircraft where detailed taxi instructions are required:
  • TAXI TO HOLDING POINT [number] [RUNWAY (number)] VIA (specific route to be followed) [TIME (time)] [HOLD SHORT OF RUNWAY (number) (or CROSS RUNWAY (number))]
ATC instruction to help a pilot join his destination on the ground:
  • TAKE (or TURN) FIRST (or SECOND) LEFT (or RIGHT)
  • TAXI VIA (identification of taxiway)
  • TAXI STRAIGHT AHEAD
ATC instruction to instruct a pilot to taxi to the final destination on the ground:
  • TAXI TO TERMINAL [STAND (number)]
  • TAXI TO GENERAL AVIATION AREA
  • TAXI TO (other location)
ATC instruction to instruct a pilot to taxi via a runway:
  • TAXI VIA RUNWAY (number)


Request movement from helicopter:
  • REQUEST AIR-TAXIING FROM (or VIA) TO (location or routing as appropriate)
ATC reply or ATC instruction:
  • AIR-TAXI TO (or VIA) (location or routing as appropriate) [CAUTION (dust, blowing snow, loose debris, taxiing light aircraft, personnel, etc.)]
  • AIR TAXI VIA (direct, as requested, or specified route) TO (location, heliport, operating or movement area, active or inactive runway). AVOID (aircraft or vehicles or personnel)
Pilot requests backtracking operation:
  • REQUEST BACKTRACK
ATC reply or ATC instruction:
  • BACKTRACK APPROVED
  • BACKTRACK RUNWAY (number)
ATC instruction to handle taxiing aircraft with traffic around:
  • TAXI WITH CAUTION
  • GIVE WAY TO (description and position of other aircraft)
  • GIVING WAY TO (traffic)
  • TRAFFIC (or type of aircraft) IN SIGHT
  • TAXI INTO HOLDING BAY
  • FOLLOW (description of other aircraft or vehicle)
Other ATC instruction on the ground:
  • VACATE RUNWAY
  • EXPEDITE TAXI [(reason)]
  • [CAUTION] TAXI SLOWER [reason]

Pilot reply to previous instructions:

  • RUNWAY VACATED
  • EXPEDITING
  • SLOWING DOWN.

Holding on the Ground

ATC instruction:
  • HOLD (direction) OF (position, runway number, etc.)
  • HOLD POSITION
  • HOLD (distance) FROM (position)
  • HOLD SHORT OF (position)
Pilot replies to previous instructions:
  • HOLDING
  • HOLDING SHORT
The procedure words “ROGER” and “WILCO” are insufficient acknowledgement of the instructions HOLD, HOLD POSITION and HOLD SHORT OF (position). In each case the acknowledgement shall be by the phraseology HOLDING or HOLDING SHORT, as appropriate.

Crossing runway

Pilot requests a runway cross:
  • REQUEST CROSS RUNWAY (number)
Note. If the control tower is unable to see the crossing aircraft (e.g. night, low visibility), the instruction should always be accompanied by a request to report when the aircraft has vacated the runway.
ATC reply or ATC instruction:
  • CROSS RUNWAY (number) [REPORT VACATED]
  • EXPEDITE CROSSING RUNWAY (number) TRAFFIC (aircraft type) (distance) KILOMETRES (or MILES) FINAL
  • TAXI TO HOLDING POINT [number] [RUNWAY (number)] VIA (specific route to be followed), [HOLD SHORT OF RUNWAY (number)] or [CROSS RUNWAY (number)]
Note. The pilot will, when requested, report “RUNWAY VACATED” when the entire aircraft is beyond the relevant runway-holding position.
Pilot reports after runway vacation:
  • RUNWAY VACATED.

Preparation for take-off

  • UNABLE TO ISSUE (designator) DEPARTURE (reasons)
ATC checks pilot to be ready for departure:
  • REPORT WHEN READY [FOR DEPARTURE]
  • ARE YOU READY [FOR DEPARTURE]?
  • ARE YOU READY FOR IMMEDIATE DEPARTURE?
Pilot replies to ATC instruction:
  • READY
ATC instruction to enter runway and await take-off clearance:
  • LINE UP [AND WAIT]
  • LINE UP RUNWAY (number)
  • LINE UP. BE READY FOR IMMEDIATE DEPARTURE
ATC instruction for conditional clearances:
  • (condition) LINE UP RUNWAY (number) (brief reiteration of the condition)
Acknowledgement of a conditional clearance by a pilot:
  • (condition) LINING UP RUNWAY (number) (brief reiteration of the condition)
ATC confirmation or otherwise of the read-back of conditional clearance:
  • [THAT IS] CORRECT
  • (NEGATIVE) [I SAY AGAIN] Instruction (as appropriate)
Pilot requests departure information for take-off (VFR operation…):
  • REQUEST DEPARTURE INSTRUCTIONS
ATC reply to departure information request:
  • AFTER DEPARTURE TURN RIGHT (or LEFT, or CLIMB) (instructions as appropriate)

Take-off clearance

ATC clearance for take-off operation:
  • RUNWAY (number) CLEARED FOR TAKE-OFF [REPORT AIRBORNE]
ATC instruction when reduced runway separation is used or traffic information with close traffic around:
  • (traffic information) RUNWAY (number) CLEARED FOR TAKE-OFF
ATC instruction when take-off clearance has not been complied with:
  • TAKE OFF IMMEDIATELY OR VACATE RUNWAY
  • TAKE OFF IMMEDIATELY OR HOLD SHORT OF RUNWAY
ATC instruction to cancel a take-off clearance before an aircraft has commenced take-off roll:
  • HOLD POSITION, CANCEL TAKE-OFF I SAY AGAIN CANCEL TAKE-OFF (reasons)
Pilot replies to ATC:
  • HOLDING
ATC Instruction to stop a take-off after an aircraft has commenced take-off roll:
  • STOP IMMEDIATELY [(repeat aircraft call sign) STOP IMMEDIATELY]
Pilot replies to ATC:
  • STOPPING
ATC instruction for helicopter operations:
  • CLEARED FOR TAKE-OFF [FROM (location)] (present position, taxiway, final approach and take-off area, runway and number)

After take-off

Pilot requests turn after departure (VFR):
  • REQUEST RIGHT (or LEFT) TURN
ATC replies:
  • RIGHT (or LEFT) TURN APPROVED
  • WILL ADVISE LATER FOR RIGHT (or LEFT) TURN
ATC Instruction to request airborne time:
  • REPORT AIRBORNE
Pilot replies:
  • AIRBORNE (time)
Pay attention that “Airborne” phraseology is used according to local regulations. For some airports, this phraseology is mandatory, but for some other reserved for military aircraft only, and forbidden in some countries.
ATC instruction with a level constraint:
  • AFTER PASSING (level), (instructions)
ATC Instruction heading to be followed:
  • CONTINUE RUNWAY HEADING (instructions)
ATC Instruction when a specific track is to be followed:
  • TRACK EXTENDED CENTRE LINE (instructions)
  • CLIMB STRAIGHT AHEAD (instructions)

Entering in aerodrome traffic circuit (VFR)

Pilot requests clearance to enter the zone requesting landing:
  • [aircraft type] (position) (level) INFORMATION (ATIS identification) FOR LANDING
  • [aircraft type] (position) (level) FOR LANDING
ATC replies:
  • JOIN [(direction of circuit)] (position in circuit) (runway number) [SURFACE] WIND (direction and speed) (units)
  • JOIN (position in circuit) [RUNWAY (number)] QNH (or QFE) (number) [(units)] [TRAFFIC (detail)]
ATC replies to instruct aircraft to perform straight-in-approach:
  • MAKE STRAIGHT-IN APPROACH, RUNWAY (number) [SURFACE] WIND (direction and speed) (units) [TEMPERATURE [MINUS] (number)] QNH (or QFE) (number) [(units)] [TRAFFIC (detail)]
ATC information instruction when ATIS is not available or not read by pilot:
  • [TEMPERATURE [MINUS] (number)] QNH (or QFE) (number) [(units)] [TRAFFIC (detail)]
Pilot informs ATC about its position inside the aerodrome circuit:
  • (position in circuit, e.g. DOWNWIND/FINAL), RUNWAY (number)
ATC instructs a pilot his order inside the aerodrome circuit depending on the other traffic:
  • NUMBER (number) FOLLOW (aircraft type and position) [additional instructions if required].

Final approach instruction (VFR)

ATC instructs a pilot to perform the aerodrome circuit to FINAL:
  • MAKE SHORT APPROACH RUNWAY (number)
  • MAKE LONG APPROACH RUNWAY (number)
  • REPORT FINAL (or LONG FINAL) RUNWAY (number)
Other possibilities of instructions for ATC to manage pilots in function of traffic:
  • REPORT BASE RUNWAY (number)
  • CONTINUE APPROACH [PREPARE FOR POSSIBLE GO AROUND].
  • EXTEND DOWNWIND RUNWAY (number)
Pilot reports final to ATC:
  • FINAL RUNWAY (number)
The report “FINAL” is required less than 7 km (4 NM) from touchdown. The report “LONG FINAL” is made when aircraft turn on to final approach at a distance greater than 7 km (4 NM) from touchdown or when an aircraft on a straight-in approach is 15 km (8 NM) from touchdown.

Landing clearance

ATC issuing landing clearance:
  • RUNWAY (number) CLEARED TO LAND

Instruction when reduced runway separation is used

  • (traffic information), RUNWAY (number) CLEARED TO LAND
Note: in all landing clearances, the term “CLEARED” is mandatory. The term “RUNWAY” followed by the runway number is also mandatory.
Instruction special operations:
  • CLEARED TOUCH AND GO
  • MAKE A FULL STOP
Pilot requests an approach along, or parallel to a runway, descending to an agreed minimum level:
  • REQUEST LOW APPROACH (reasons)
ATC instruction to instruct pilot to perform an approach along, or parallel to a runway, descending to an agreed minimum level:
  • CLEARED LOW APPROACH [RUNWAY (number)] [(altitude restriction if required) (go around instructions)]
Pilot requests to fly past the control tower or other observation point for the purpose of visual inspection by persons on the ground
  • REQUEST LOW PASS (reasons)
ATC instruction to fly past the control tower or other observation point for the purpose of visual inspection by persons on the ground:
  • CLEARED LOW PASS APPROACH [RUNWAY (number)] [(altitude restriction if required) (go around instructions)]
Helicopter pilot requests for landing or approaching the landing area:
  • REQUEST STRAIGHT-IN (or CIRCLING APPROACH, LEFT (or RIGHT) TURN TO (location))
ATC instruction for helicopter operations:
  • MAKE STRAIGHT-IN (or CIRCLING APPROACH, LEFT (or RIGHT) TURN TO (location, runway, taxiway, final approach and take-off area)) [ARRIVAL (or ARRIVAL ROUTE) (number, name, or code)]. [HOLD SHORT OF (active runway, extended runway centre line, other)].
  • [REMAIN (direction or distance) FROM (runway, runway centre line, other helicopter or aircraft)]. [CAUTION (power lines, unlighted obstructions, wake turbulence, etc.)].
  • CLEARED TO LAND.

Delaying VFR aircraft

ATC instruction in order to delay a VFR aircraft for landing:
  • CIRCLE THE AERODROME
  • ORBIT (RIGHT, or LEFT) [FROM PRESENT POSITION]
  • MAKE ANOTHER CIRCUIT.

Missed approach

ATC instructs an aircraft to perform a missed approach and cancel its landing:
  • GO AROUND
Pilot mandatory read back or Pilot information to ATC when he performs a unexpected missed approach:
  • GOING AROUND.

Specific aerodrome operation

ATC Instruction when pilot requested visual inspection of landing gear (during a low pass):
  • LANDING GEAR APPEARS DOWN
  • RIGHT (or LEFT, or NOSE) WHEEL APPEARS UP (or DOWN)
  • WHEELS APPEAR UP
  • RIGHT (or LEFT, or NOSE) WHEEL DOES NOT APPEAR UP (or DOWN)
ATC instruction informing about wake turbulence:
  • CAUTION WAKE TURBULENCE [FROM ARRIVING (or DEPARTING) (type of aircraft)] [additional information as required]
Instruction jet blast on apron or taxiway:
  • CAUTION JET BLAST
Instruction propeller-driven, aircraft slipstream:
  • CAUTION SLIPSTREAM.

Runway vacating and communication after landing

ATC instruction after aircraft has landed successfully:
  • CONTACT GROUND (frequency)
  • WHEN VACATED CONTACT GROUND (frequency)
  • EXPEDITE VACATING
  • TAKE (or TURN) FIRST (or SECOND, or CONVENIENT) LEFT (or RIGHT) AND CONTACT GROUND (frequency)
  • YOUR STAND (or GATE) (designation)
ATC instruction for helicopter operations:
  • AIR-TAXI TO HELICOPTER STAND (or) HELICOPTER PARKING POSITION (area)
  • AIR-TAXI TO (or VIA) (location or routing as appropriate) [CAUTION (dust, blowing snow, loose debris, taxiing light aircraft, personnel, etc.)]
  • AIR-TAXI VIA (direct, as requested, or specified route) TO (location, heliport, operating or movement area, active or inactive runway). AVOID (aircraft or vehicles or personnel)

See also

Reference

  • ICAO Documentation 4444 - Air Traffic Management - 16th Edition 2016 - Chapter 12

Author

  • VID 150259 - Creation

DATE OF SUBMISSION

  • 14:49, 16 November 2019

COPYRIGHT

  • This documentation is copyrighted as part of the intellectual property of the International Virtual Aviation Organisation.

DISCLAIMER

  • The content of this documentation is intended for aviation simulation only and must not be used for real aviation operations.