Aerodrome Lighting System[PDF]
- 1 Introduction
- 2 Runway approach ramps
- 3 Visual Approach Slope Guidance
- 3.1 Precision Approach Path Indicator (PAPI)
- 3.2 Visual Approach Slope Indicator (VASI)
- 3.3 TVASI
- 3.4 Runway lighting
- 3.5 Runway edge lights
- 3.6 Runway threshold and runway end lights
- 3.7 Runway centreline lights
- 3.8 Touchdown zone (TDZ) lights
- 3.9 Rapid Exit Taxiway Indicator Lights (RETIL)
- 4 Taxiway Lighting
- 5 See also
- 6 Reference
- 7 Author
Runway approach ramps
Simple version of approach lights
A simple version of approach lighting consists of a low intensity white centreline and cross bar. It starts 500m prior to the runway threshold (the green lights).
Precision version of approach lights
The Calvert system consists of a white centreline and 5 white cross bars. It commences 900m prior to the runway threshold (see the next figure).
At aerodromes where CAT II and III approaches are conducted, supplementary approach lights are added to the system.
Supplementary approach lights are installed the last 300m prior the runway threshold, consisting of a white centreline barrette and two red side barrettes.
Visual Approach Slope Guidance
Precision Approach Path Indicator (PAPI)
It consists of a single row of 4 red and white lights. The colour is depending on the vertical angle as shown in the illustration hereunder.
PAPI’s are usually situated to the left side of the runway. However, where this is impracticable, it may be installed on the right side of the runway. There also are aerodromes where PAPI’s are placed on both sides of the runway.
Where a PAPI is used together with an ILS, it is located to align both glide slopes as much as practicable. Any additional restrictions shall be published in the appropriate section in the local AIP.
Visual Approach Slope Indicator (VASI)
It consists of two rows of two red and white lights which presentation is as shown below:
On correct approach path, pilot must see a red light row and a white light row.
There also exists a VASI consisting of three rows. For a normal aircraft the correct approach path in this case would be indicated by two red bars and one white bar. An aircraft with a high cockpit would have to see one red bar and two white bars.
- Runway Edge Lights
- Runway Threshold and Runway End Lights
Runway edge lights
They are white except for:
- Caution Zone Lights
- Pre-Threshold Lights
- Runway Exit Lights
- Stop way Lights
Caution Zone Lights
Runway Exit Lights
Stop Way Lights
Runway threshold and runway end lights
Runway centreline lights
Runway centreline lights are colour coded:
- From the threshold until 900 meters from the runway end the centreline lights are white.
- The following 600 meters are alternating red and white lights.
- The last 300 meters are only red lights.
Runway centreline lights are spaced each 30 meters. However for CAT III runway operations, they are spaced each 15 meters.
Touchdown zone (TDZ) lights
The touchdown zone lights extend from the threshold light bar for 900 meters or the midpoint of the runway, whichever is the shorter distance.
Rapid Exit Taxiway Indicator Lights (RETIL)
Rapid exit taxiway indicator lights shall be fixed unidirectional yellow lights, aligned so as to be visible to the pilot of a landing aeroplane in the direction of approach to the runway.Taxiway centre line lights on a rapid exit taxiway should commence at a point at least 60m before the beginning of the taxiway centre line curve and continue beyond the end of the curve to the point on the centre line of the taxiway where an aeroplane can be expeected to reach normal taxiing speed.
Green taxiway centreline lights are provided for low visibility procedures (Where green centreline lights areprovided, blue edge lights may also be provided).
Aerodromes without such guidance systems, but do have complex taxiway intersections, may provide taxiway intersection lights.They consist of at least 3 steady yellow lights, installed symmetrically over the taxiway centreline. Where taxiway centreline lights are situated within an ILS sensitive area, the lights alternate yellow and green.
Stop bar, Lead-on and Lead-off Lights
Stop bars lights consist of equally spaced unidirectional red lights across the taxiway at a 90° angle to the taxiway centreline.
Stop bars are situated at runway entry’s and holding points. They may also be installed at taxiway intersections (e.g. associated with a taxiway guidance system). Normally stop bars are installed associated with green lead-on lights.
Runway guard lights
- ICAO Documentation 4444 - Air Traffic Management - 16th Edition 2016 - Chapter 7.15
- ICAO Documentation Annex 14 - Aerodromes - Volume I - Aerodrome Design and Operation - 8th Edition July 2018 - Chapter 5
- VID 150259 - Creation
- VID 200696 - Update
- VID 435695 - Wiki integration
DATE OF SUBMISSION
- 01:38, 20 January 2022
- This documentation is copyrighted as part of the intellectual property of the International Virtual Aviation Organisation.
- The content of this documentation is intended for aviation simulation only and must not be used for real aviation operations.